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Jac-Pac Technology

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The Technology Behind Jac-Pac Sterilization

Disinfection of water using ultraviolet light (UV) is:
- a proven technology
- safe
- effective
- suitable for small and large applications

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The bacteria kill range happens in the UV range, which is between X-rays and visible light. But the whole UV range is NOT germicidal. Only the UV-C (short wave UV) and some of the UV-B (middle wave UV) is germicidal. The Jac-Pac units we offer, operate in an optimum effective frequency of 253.7 nanometers or angstroms.

 The wavelengths most effective in killing bacteria lie below 300 nanometers (sun tanning range). The wavelengths most effective in producing ozone lie below 200 nanometers (ozone range). We are only interested in killing microbes, so we are concerned primarily with wavelengths between 200 and 300 nanometers, with the optimum being 253.7 nanometers.

Lamp

UV light is emitted as a result of electrical current flowing through the mercury vapor between the electrodes of the lamp. UV lamps (low pressure mercury vapor) produce the majority of there UV output at 253.7 nanometers, which is the closest we can get to the optimum of 260-265 nanometers. UV germicidal lamps are built with UV transmitting quartz to allow 96% of the UV energy to be transmitted to the water. Normal glass is opaque to UV so the lamp sleeve must be made of fused silica or quartz.

Micro organisms

Micro organisms include several distinct groups of disease-causing germs divided into five major groups: Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Algae and Protozoa.

 The target of the UV disinfection is the genetic material or nucleic acid within the cell wall of the micro organism. The UV light penetrates the cell wall and is absorbed by the nucleic acid which causes a scrambling of the genetic information and therefore interferes with the cells ability to reproduce. A cell which can't reproduce is considered dead since it is unable to multiply to infectious numbers within a host (like spa water or a human). The maximum absorption of UV light by a nucleic acid occurs at 260 nanometers and the germicidal lamp operates very close to the optimum wavelength.

 Lethal dosages for numerous micro organisms have been documented by the health agencies. Most bacteria and virus require relatively low dosages for inactivation, usually 10,000 microwatt- seconds per square centimeter. Most UV equipment is rated to deliver a minimum dosage of 30,000 microwatt-seconds per square centimeter. Our equipment is designed to provide for the most part about a minimum of 40,000 microwatt-seconds per square centimeter. In some applications where the bacteria passes through the chamber numerous times like in a spa or pool then the exposure time produced by the Jac-Pac can become unlimited.

Ultraviolet irradiation is rapidly becoming the method of choice for disinfection/sterilization without the use of chemicals such as chlorine. The major advantage of ultraviolet being that nothing is introduced to the fluid stream that may have to be removed later. Additionally, UV does not affect the physical or chemical properties of water, therefore, no change in ph, color, odor, temperature, or taste occurs."

 If you would like to see some general research results from BC Research click here. 


Bacteria Killed By Jac-Pac

Ultraviolet Water Purification System

UV Destruction Chart (Partial List)

Amount of germicidal ultraviolet energy necessary for complete destruction of various organisms.
 
Microwatt-Seconds per Cm.

BACTERIA

  • Bacillus anthracis............................................8700 
  • S. enteritidis...................................................7600 
  • B. Megatherium sp. (veg.)..............................2500 
  • B. Megatherium sp. (spores)..........................5200 
  • B. paratyphosus.............................................6100 
  • B. subtilis.....................................................11000 
  • B. subtilis spores..........................................22000 
  • Clostridium tetani.........................................22000 
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae..........................6500 
  • Eberthella typosa............................................4100 
  • Escherichlia coli..............................................6600 
  • Legionella bozemanii.......................................3500 
  • Legionella dumoffii..........................................5500 
  • Legionella gormanii.........................................4900 
  • Legionella micdadei........................................3100 
  • Legionalla longbeachae...................................2900 
  • Legionella pneumophilia..................................3800 
  • Micrococcus candidus..................................12300 
  • Micrococcus sphaeroides.............................15400 
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis.........................10000 
  • Neisseria catarrhalis.......................................8500 
  • Phytomonas tumefaciens................................8500 
  • Proteus vulgaris.............................................6600 
  • Pseudonmonas flourescens............................6600 
  • S. typhimurium............................................15200 
  • Salmonella..................................................10000 
  • Sarcina lutea...............................................26400 
  • Serratia marcescens......................................6160 
  • Dysentery bacilli............................................4200 
  • Shigella paradysenteriae.................................3400 
  • Spirillum rubrum............................................6160 
  • Staphylococcus albus....................................5720 
  • Staphylococcus aureus..................................6600 
  • Streptococus hemolyticus..............................5500 
  • Streptococus lactis........................................8100 
  • Streptococcus viridan....................................3800 

YEAST

  • Saccharomyces ellipsoideus........................13200 
  • Saccharomyces sp......................................17600 
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae...........................13200 
  • Brewer's yeast..............................................6600 
  • Baker's yeast................................................8800 
  • Common yeast cake...................................13200 

MOLD SPORES

  • Penicillium roqueforti..................................26400 
  • Penicillium expansum..................................22000 
  • Penicillium digitatum....................................88000 
  • Aspergillus glaucus.....................................88000 
  • Aspergillus flavus........................................99000 
  • Aspergillus niger.......................................330000 
  • Rhisopus nigricans....................................220000 
  • Muscor racemosus A.................................35200 
  • Muscor racemosus B.................................35200 
  • Oospora Iactis...........................................11000 

VIRUS

  • Vibrio cholerae........................................11500 
  • Bacteriophage (E.coli)...............................6600 
  • Tobacco mosiac....................................440000 
  • Influenza....................................................6600 

PROTOZOA

  • Paramecium.........................................200000 
  • Nematode eggs......................................92000 
  • Chorella vulgaris (Algae).........................22000 

When Bacteria or pathogens pas through the Jac-Pac chamber, that are exposed to high intensity ultra violet rays which are being emitted in the germicidal frequency range of 253.7 nanometers for a period of approximately 40,000 microwatt second (directly related to the flow rate through the reaction chamber). This exposure disrupts the DNA bonding and stops the bacteria from breeding, if they can't reproduce then they are considered dead.

 In some applications where the bacteria passes through the chamber numerous times like in a spa or pool then the exposure time produced by the Jac-Pac can become unlimited.

 

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British Columbia Arms  Based in Port Coquitlam, BC, Canada.

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